山东大学附属生殖医院,二代试管婴儿具体多少钱
文章来源:http://www.cnjyjk.cn  发布日期:2019-04-29

  避孕新手

  the number of birth control options may seem overwhelming. In this site you can find out about side effects, what to expect from your gynecologist visit and you can explore your contraceptive options.

  避孕方法多种多样,在网上你可以发现避孕有很多副作用,这些副作用你可以从妇科专家哪里了解到,也可以自己体会到。

  又忘记服避孕药了吗?

  Are you experiencing side effects due to your current form of birth control? If you're finding the disadvantages outweigh the advantages, then you may want to consider another form of birth control. Read through our FAQs to learn about the options available to you.

  你现在的避孕方法给你带来副作用了吗?如果弊大于利的话,你可以考虑更换避孕方法。浏览我们的常见问题和解答,来选择对你有益的避孕方法。

  Test your knowledge:问题测试

  The pill may offer protection against ovarian and endometrial cancers.

  口服避孕药可以降低卵巢癌及子宫内膜癌的发生。

  

  As you browse through My Contraceptive, you can select multiple questions. To do so, click the icon beside the question or the question itself. Your questions will be listed on the 'Organize My Questions' page where you can save, e-mail or delete them.

  When you're finished selecting and/or organizing

  your questions, click 'Answer My Questions.'

  当你浏览我们的避孕产品时,你可以选择提问。提问时,可以点击问题旁边的按钮或问题本身,你的问题就会被列在“我的问题组”中,你可以保留、e-mail或删除这些问题。选择完问题后,可以点击“回答问题”按钮。

  

  effctives益处

  问题

  How will I know which birth control method is right for me?

  我如何了解哪种避孕方法适合我?

  专家答疑

  · Generally, there are six principle methods of birth control. These include: Hormonal methods which prevent the ovaries from producing mature eggs 。

  · Barrier methods which prevent sperm and egg from meeting

  Chemical methods which destroy sperm on contact

  避孕方案六原则法,包括:

  · Surgical methods which permanently interrupt the transportation of egg or sperm

  · Emergency contraception which is used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse Abstinence。

  The birth control method you choose should suit your temperament and lifestyle. In order to make an informed decision, you must ask yourself some important questions. For instance, are you looking for a long or short-term method of birth control? Are you in a stable relationship or do you plan on having multiple partners? Do you want a method that also protects against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)? Are you committed enough to remember to take medications on time? Do you smoke or have any serious health problems? Are you prepared for the responsibility if you do become pregnant?

  · 激素法:抑制卵巢排卵

  · 屏障法:抑制精子卵子结合。

  · 化学法:破坏精子融合

  · 手术法:永久抑制卵子或精子的运输。

  · 紧急避孕法:防止无保护性生活后的意外怀孕。

  所选择的避孕方案应适合你的习惯及生活方式。选择正确的避孕措施前,你应考虑几个重要的问题。如:要长期还是短期避孕?有一个稳定的性伴侣还是同时有几个性伴侣?需要一个同时可以防止性传播疾病的避孕法吗?能保证按时服药吗?是否吸烟或是有其他严重的疾病吗?意外怀孕后想生吗?

  

  问题

  I am planning to start using the pill so that my boyfriend and I don't have to worry about unintended pregnancy. Do we still need to use a back-up form of birth control like a condom just to be sure?

  我打算服用避孕药,这样我和我的男朋友就不用担心意外怀孕了。那么我们还需要辅助的避孕措施,如避孕套吗?

  Though you have involved in a committed relationship and have decided to start taking the pill, a backup method of birth control, such as the condom, is still necessary until your body adjusts to the pill’s hormones and you’re accustomed to taking your pill every day. If your healthcare provider prescribes a combination birth control pill, that is, one containing two hormones, estrogen and progestin, there are two methods of starting: Day-One Start and Sunday Start. If you start taking your pill on Day One of your menstrual period (e.g. first day of bleeding), you will be protected against pregnancy from the first day. However, I suggest using a backup method of contraception for your first month until you get used to remembering to take the pill every day. Many women prefer to start taking the pill on the first Sunday after their period begins. In this case, you need to use a backup method of birth control for the first seven days. If the first day of your menstrual cycle happens to be on a Sunday, then you’re protected from Day One. Again, I suggest using a backup method of contraception for your first month until you get used to remembering to take the pill every day. Always begin by taking the first pill in the packet, and ensure you take each pill at the same time every day. Taken as directed, the combined pill is greater than 99.9 percent effective at preventing pregnancy. Your healthcare provider may prescribe the progestin-only pill, also known as the mini-pill. In this case, you need to use a backup method of birth control for the first month. The mini-pill is 90 to 99 percent effective at preventing pregnancy if taken at the same time every day. If you are unsure of the formula you taking, consult your healthcare provider.

  Remember, the pill doesn’t protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), so if you aren’t in a committed relationship, you should continue using a condom.

  如果你们有确定的性关系,并决定服用避孕药的话,在你适应避孕药阶段仍需要避孕套等辅助避孕措施。如果医生处方的是复方避孕药,则含有两种激素成分,即雌、孕激素。有两种服用方法:第一天服用法和星期日服用法。

  如果从月经的第一天开始服药的话,从服药的当天就有避孕作用。然而,我建议在第一个月应该采用辅助避孕措施,直到你习惯于天天服用避孕药为止。

  很多妇女喜欢在月经后的第一个周日开始服用避孕药。采用这种方法,在服用的头七天需用辅助避孕措施。如果月经来潮的第一天正好是周日的话,从服用的当天就 有避孕作用。另外,我建议在第一个月应该采用辅助避孕措施,直到你习惯于天天服用避孕药为止。从开始服用第一片药时,要确保每天都在同一时间服药。按照说明书服药,复方避孕药的有效率超过99.9%。

  你的医生可能开只含有孕激素的微型的避孕药丸(微丸)。服微丸时,在第一个月应该采用辅助避孕措施。如果每天在同一时间服药的话,避孕成功率为90-99%

  如果不了解这种避孕方法,可以咨询你的处方医生。

  牢记,避孕药并不防止性传播疾病。如果有不正当的性生活,仍需采用避孕套。

  

  问题

  What happens if I miss a pill. Am I still protected?

  如果漏服药丸会怎样,还有避孕作用吗?

  专家答疑

  Every time you miss a pill, there’s a greater chance that ovulation may occur, increasing your risk of pregnancy. In a 21-day pack of birth control pills, all 21 pills are active, that is, they contain the hormones that protect against pregnancy. In some cases a 28-day pack, only the first 21 pills are active. In other cases with Mircette the remaining tablets, called placebos, do not contain hormones but simply serve as reminder to take your pill every day. Generally speaking, if you miss one active tablet you will still be protected against pregnancy if you:

  · Take your missed pill as soon as you remember

  Take the next pill at your regular time ,You will be taking two pills in one day; however, you should not have more than a 7 day in a row interval between packs. You do not have to use a backup method of birth control if you have sex.

  If you miss two active pills:

  · Take two pills on the day you remember and two pills the next day

  · Then take one pill a day until you finish the pack

  You may become pregnant if you have sex in the seven days after you miss two pills, so I highly recommend using a backup method of birth control such as a condom, spermicides or contraceptive sponge during those days.

  If you miss two active pills in a row in week three:

  · If you’re a Day One starter, throw out the rest of the pack and start a new pack that same day.

  · If you’re a Sunday starter, keep taking one pill every day until Sunday. On Sunday, throw out the rest of the pack and start a new pack of pills that same day.

  You may not have your period this month, but this is expected. However, if you miss your period two months in a row, you should visit your healthcare provider or health-care provider for a pregnancy test. You may become pregnant if you have sex in the seven days after you miss pills, so I highly recommend using a backup method of birth control such as a condom, spermicides or contraceptive sponge during those days.

  If you miss three or more active pills in a row (during the first three weeks): If you’re a Day One starter, throw out the rest of the pill pack and start a new pack that same day. If you’re a Sunday starter, keep taking one pill every day until Sunday. On Sunday, throw out the rest of the pack and start a new pack of pills that same day. You must use a backup method of birth control if you have sex in the seven days after you miss pills. If you do not have a period this month there is no need to worry. However, if you miss your period two months in a row, call your healthcare provider or health-care provider because you might be pregnant.

  You may want to consider using a reminder tool such as Mircette’s RemindHer card. I also recommended some online resources that provide tips on using the pill and what to do if you forget to take it.

  If you find that you continually forgetting to take the pill, or if you prefer to not have to take the pill daily you may want to try another method of birth control, such as the vaginal ring. To find out more information about the ring, visit NuvaRing’s Web site.

  每次漏服时,都会有排卵的机会,增加怀孕的危险。21片/盒的避孕药,每一片都有药物活性,也就是说,每一片药都含有激素。也有28片/盒的,但只是前21片有药物活性,其他7片叫安慰剂,不含有激素成分,它们的作用只是提醒你每天都服药。

  一般来说,如果你漏服一片活性药片,仍然有避孕作用。如果一想起漏服,就马上补服,常规时间继续服用下一片药,可能一天需要服用二片避孕药。然而停药期不能超过7天,在停药期内,过性生活时不需采取其他的避孕措施。

  如果漏服2片避孕药:

  想起来的当日和次日,要同时服用两片避孕药,以后每天服用一片,直至本盒药服完。漏服2片后接下来的七天,避孕效果会降低,因此我强调在这七天内要使用避孕套、杀精剂或避孕海面等辅助避孕措施。

  如果在第3周漏服两片:

  如果采用第一天服药法,停服此盒药,立即开始服用下一盒药。

  如果采用星期日服药法,继续每天服用一片直至周日。周日时开始服用下一盒药。

  这个周期,可能不会有月经来潮,但这是正常的。然而,如果二个月没有月经来潮,应该到医院做妊娠试验。在漏服药的七天内如果有性生活的话,你可能会怀孕。因此我强调在这七天内要使用避孕套、杀精剂或避孕海面等辅助避孕措施。

  如果在服药3周内漏服大于等于3片

  · 如果你采用第一天服药法:扔掉剩余的药,立即开始服用新的一盒避孕药。

  · 如果你采用星期日服药法,继续每天服用一片,直至周日,从周日开始立即服用下一盒药。

  在漏服药的七天内如果有性生活的话,必须采用其他避孕措施。如果这个周期内无月经来潮,无需担心。然而连续两个月无月经来潮的话,应到医院检查是否怀孕。

  你可以考虑使用提醒工具,如:提示卡等。另外,我推荐了一些在线资源,可以提醒服药及漏服后的处理办法。如果发现连续漏服或不喜欢每天服药的话,可以尝试其他避孕方法,如阴道环。如果想了解更多关于阴道环方面的问题,请登陆:Nuvaring网站。

  

  问题

  I just started taking the pill two weeks ago - can I count on being protected against pregnancy?

  我已开始服药2周,我能依靠它避孕吗?

  专家答疑

  The pill is designed to be 99 percent effective at preventing unwanted pregnancy provided that you have not missed any pills and that you are taking your pills at about the same time every day. If you抮e taking a combination birth control pill, that is, one containing two hormones, estrogen and progestin, and have chosen to begin taking the pill on the first day of your menstrual period (Day One start), you should be protected from Day One. You may have chosen a Sunday start. In this case, your healthcare provider likely recommended using a backup method of birth control, such as a condom, for the first seven days of the pack: that is, unless the first day of your menstrual cycle happens to be on a Sunday. This would be considered a Day One start.

  If your healthcare provider prescribed the progestin-only or mini-pill, again, he likely advised using a backup method of birth control for the first month. If you’re experiencing vomiting or diarrhea, or are taking any new medications, consult your healthcare provider. Some medications may interfere with the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Be certain to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking.

  As long as you’re following your healthcare provider recommended pill-taking routine, you can rest assured that the pill is providing you with optimal protection against pregnancy.

  如果没有漏服且每天在同一时间服药的话,避孕药有99%的避孕效果。如果你在服复方避孕药,即含雌孕两种激素,而且采用第一天服药法的话,从服药的当日就有避孕效果。你也可以采用星期日服药法,但医生会建议你在服药的头七天采用其他避孕措施,如避孕套,除非经期第一天恰好是周日,这算作第一天服药法。

  当医生处方的是纯孕激素避孕药或微丸时,同样,他会建议你在服药的第一个月采用辅助避孕措施。如果伴有呕吐、腹泻或同时服用其他药物时,要咨询医生。一些药物会降低口服避孕药的药效。一定要告诉医生你服用的所有药物。只要你采用医生推荐的避孕方案,可以认为那是最佳的避孕方案。

  

  问题

  I've been taking the pill for nine years now. Do I need a pill break or is it safe to keep taking the pill?

  我服用避孕药已经9年了,需要停一段时间吗?继续服用安全吗?

  专家答疑

  There is little evidence to support the idea that long-term use of the pill has negative effects. In fact, some studies suggest that pill users have a 70 to 80 percent lower risk of ovarian cancer and a 67 percent lower risk of endometrial cancer after eight years of taking the pill. Pill users also report fewer bleeding disorders and hot flushes when starting menopause than non-pill users. As a rule of thumb, once your system becomes accustomed to the pill, it’s advisable to stay on it, not only for continuous protection against pregnancy, but also to avoid irregular periods. Periodic check-ups with your healthcare provider will ensure that you are healthy and free from other medical conditions that may interfere with pill taking. You can relax knowing that the pill is a safe and effective long-term method of birth control.

  You may want to visit Mircette's Web site to help you separate pill facts from fiction.

  无证据表明长期服用避孕药有副作用。实际上,大量研究表明,服用8年以上避孕药者,可以降低70-80%卵巢癌及67%子宫内膜癌的发生率。

  服用避孕药者,可以减少经期不规则出血和潮热。一般来讲,一旦机体适应避孕药,继续服药是很明智的,它不仅有持续的避孕作用,还可以避免不规则出血。定期体检,可以保证健康,并且没有其他影响避孕作用的疾病。自然你可意识到口服避孕药是一种可以长期服用的安全、有效的避孕措施。

  你可以访问Mircette's Web site网站,澄清你对口服避孕药的误解。

  www.mycontraceptive.com/answer.asp?display=9&segment=new 问题

  Are all birth control pills created equal?

  所有的避孕药效果都一样吗?

  专家答疑

  All birth control pills are designed to do the same thing, that is, prevent the release of an egg from the ovaries (ovulation) thus making pregnancy impossible. The pill contains hormones that are similar to the hormones found naturally in the body. These hormones make the body believe that the ovaries are producing hormones when in fact they are resting. As a result, egg maturation does not occur.

  Different pill types contain different levels and types of hormones: the combination oral contraceptive (COC) contains both estrogen and progestin while the mini-pill contains progestin only. While the majority of pills have the same type of estrogen (ethinyl estradiol), they differ in the type of progestin. Pills with the newer progestins may offer some benefits over the older types. Additionally, the pill comes in one of two formats: a 21-day pack where you take one tablet for 21 days and stop for seven days, and a 28-day pack where the tablets are taken continuously. In some case the 28-day pack contains seven placebos or non-active pills which are basically there as a reminder of when to start a new pack like Mircette. he wide variety of oral contraceptive products allows your healthcare provider to choose the right pill for you. You can obtain more information on the different types of pills and how they work on Mircette's Web site

  所有的避孕药的作用机制都一样,即抑制卵巢排卵,从而防止怀孕。药物中的激素成分与体内天然的激素相同。这些激素使机体认为卵巢在释放激素,因此不会形成成熟卵子。不同种类的避孕药激素水平不一样。复合型口服避孕药包括雌激素和孕激素,而微丸仅含有孕激素。大部分的避孕药含有同种孕激素,只是孕激素的类型不一样。与老的避孕药相比,新型避孕药能带来的更多的益处。

  此外,避孕药规格有两种形式,一种是21片/盒,服用21天,停药7天。一种是28片/盒,连续服用28天。这28片药物包括7片安慰剂或无活性的药片。口服避孕药的种类繁多,医生可以帮助选择适合你的避孕药。访问 Mircette's Web site.网站,你可以获得更多的关于不同种类的避孕药的知识及其避孕机制。

  

  问题

  I recently had a bad cold and my healthcare provider put me on antibiotics. Can these or other medications change the effectiveness of my birth control pills?

  最近我感冒了,医生选用抗生素为我治疗。这些药物能降低避孕效果吗?

  专家答疑

  A variety of medications can interact with the birth control pill including antibiotics such as penicillins, tetracyclines and cephalosporins, anticonvulsants and antifungals. Some of these medications can affect the action of oral contraceptives, resulting in the failure of your pill to prevent pregnancy. By the same token, the pill itself may enhance or decrease the effectiveness of certain medications. It抯 important for you to keep your healthcare provider and pharmacist informed of any medications you’re on. If you’re sexually active while taking any of the above-noted medications, I recommend using a backup method of birth control. It’s always best to play it safe. You can obtain more information on the interaction between oral contraceptives and other types of medication by visiting the online resources I’ve recommended.

  许多药物可以降低避孕效果,导致避孕失败。这些药物包括青霉素、四环素和头孢等抗生素、抗惊厥和抗真菌药。同样,避孕药也可以影响这些药物本身的治疗作用。让你的妇科医生和药剂师了解你的治疗方案是很重要的。如果在服用上述药物期间有性生活,建议同时采用其他避孕措施,以确保避孕效果。

  登陆我推荐的网站,你可以获得更多的关于口服避孕药与其他药物间的相互作用的知识。

  

  问题

  How has the pill improved?

  专家答疑

  The pills of today are vastly different from the varieties of 30 years ago. The earliest pills had significantly higher amounts of hormones, which caused many unwanted side effects. Today抯 pills are considered low dose, meaning they contain the lowest possible dose of hormones necessary to protect against pregnancy. The levels of estrogen have dropped from formulations as high as 100 mg to formulations with less than 50 mg. Lower estrogen means there is less likelihood that you may develop side effects, such as headaches or bloating, associated with higher-dose pills.

  Today, 98 percent of all pills used in developed countries are combined oral contraceptives (COCs), that is, they contain both estrogen and progestin. The other two percent of pills used contain progestins only. This type of pill, referred to as the mini-pill is typically prescribed during breastfeeding; studies have shown that it does not affect the quantity or quality of breast milk, and little, if any, progestin is transferred to the infant.

  Additionally, the advent of newer progestins, such as desogestrel, drospironone and norgestimate, have created a new generation of combined contraceptive pills.

  You can obtain more information about today’ pills on Mircette's Web site or the other online resources I’ve recommended.

  目前的避孕药与30年前的避孕药大不相同。早期的避孕药含高剂量的激素,引起许多副作用。

  目前的避孕药激素剂量很低,即仅含有起到避孕作用的最小激素剂量。孕激素的含量从过去的100mcg降到低于50mcg,孕激素的剂量越低,发生头疼、头晕等与高剂量孕激素相关的副作用的可能性越小。

  目前发达国家使用的98%的避孕药是复合型口服避孕药,即包括雌、孕两种激素。其余的2%仅含有孕激素。这种避孕药,即微丸,一般是在哺乳期服用的。研究表明,它并不影响乳汁的数量和质量,且不通过乳汁分泌。

  此外,随着新的孕激素的出现,产生了新一代的复合型口服避孕药。访问Mircette's Web site网站或其他在线资源,你将获得更多的关于目前避孕药的信息。

  

  问题

  I took the pill back in the 1970s when it was fairly new on the market. Am I too old to take the pill again?

  早在70年代我就服用过避孕药,那时市场上它还是新产品,现在我年纪大了,还可以服用避孕药吗?

  专家答疑

  The notion that women over 35 cannot take the pill is extremely outdated. Current studies show that women over 35 who do not smoke can take the pill right up to menopause. Many women even opt to take the pill during menopause as an alternative to hormone therapy. here are currently over 20 different kinds of birth control pills on the market, and today’s pill formulas are vastly different from those of the past. The doses of hormones in today’s pills are much lower than the earlier formulations. If you have none of the medical conditions that would prevent you from using a hormonal method of birth control, there is probably no reason why you can’t take the pill again. You can obtain more information on today’s pill from Mircette's Web site.

  Similarly, you may be a candidate for the vaginal ring, a hormonal method of birth control that provides the same level of protection as the pill, but is inserted monthly. To find out more information about the ring, visit NuvaRing’s Web site.

  年龄超过35岁不能服用避孕药的说法已经过时了。目前研究表明,年龄超过35岁不吸烟者,可以服用避孕药直至绝经。许多妇女在经期服用激素,作为激素替代治疗。目前市场上有20多种避孕药,结构与过去的避孕药大不相同。目前药物中的激素剂量明显比早期的低,如果你没有不能服用激素类避孕药的疾病,那么完全可以继续服用避孕药。登陆Mircette's Web site网站,你可以了解更多的关于目前避孕药的知识。

  另外,你也可以选择含激素的阴道环,它与避孕药的效果一样,但每月需要放一次。可以登陆NuvaRing’s Web site. 网站,了解更多的关于阴道环的知识。

  

  问题

  Sometimes I find it difficult to take my birth control pill at exactly the same time everyday? Will I still be protected?

  每天很难都在同一时间服药,那么还有避孕效果吗?

  专家答疑

  The risk of unwanted pregnancy increases in those who forget a pill for more than 24 hours. If you’ve forgotten one pill and you are less than 48 hours late, you generally don’t need to worry if you take your pill as soon as possible. You must then resume taking your next pill at the usual time. In the event that it has been more than 48 hours, you must take your missed pill as soon as possible and the next pills on schedule; however you must also use a backup form of birth control such as a condom with spermicide for the next seven days. If a pill has been forgotten at the end of the pill packet, users are advised to use additional contraception (exlcuding the "placebo" pills) for seven days and start a new pill pack immediately without the seven-day break. If you missed tablets in the first week of starting a pill packet and you had intercourse in the week before the tablets were missed, you run the risk of being pregnant. You may want to consider using a reminder tool such as Mircette’s RemindHer card. I’ve also recommended some online resources that provide tips on using the pill and what to do if you forget to take it.

  If you find that you’re continually forgetting to take the pill, you may want to try another method of birth control, such as the vaginal ring. The vaginal ring provides the same level of protection as the pill, but is inserted monthly. To find out more information about the ring, visit NuvaRing’s Web site.

  漏服超过24小时,会增加意外怀孕的风险。如果漏服一片避孕药时间短于48小时,且想起来时立即补服,一般不必担心怀孕。但你必须在常规时间服用下一片药。如果超过48小时,想起来时,必须补服已经漏服的药片,继续在常规时间服剩下的药片。然而在接下来的七天必须采用辅助避孕措施,如避孕套、杀精剂。如果在服用末期漏服,一般建议服用其他的避孕药七天,包括安慰剂。之后,开始服用下一盒避孕药,无七天停药期。如果在第一周漏服,在这一周漏服前有性生活的话,你有怀孕的可能性。你可以考虑使用提醒工具,如Mircette’s 提示卡. 我推荐的网络资源可以告诉你如何服用避孕药及漏服后的处理方法。如果你经常忘记服药 ,可以考虑其他的避孕措施,如阴道环,它与避孕药的药效相似,但需每月放一次。登陆NuvaRing’s Web site网站,你可以了解更多的信息。

  

  问题

  I am taking several herbal supplements. Can these alter the effectiveness of my birth control pills?

  我服用了几种中药,它们会影响避孕药的药效吗?

  专家答疑

  Research regarding potential conflicts between herbal supplements or natural remedies and prescription drugs is still in its infancy; however the list of herbal products associated with drug interactions is growing. The action of herbal remedies may be just as powerful as prescription drugs, so it’s important to inform your healthcare provider and pharmacist about any alternative medicines you may be taking. Little is known about the impact of herbal products on the effectiveness of the pill. One herbal product, which is known to interact with the pill, is St. John’s Wort. Otherwise known as “nature’s Prozac,” this herb is not recommended for pill users because it can alter the effectiveness of birth control pills. You can obtain more information on the relationship between prescription drugs and herbal remedies by visiting the site I’ve recommended

  关于草本药或 与处方药的潜在相互作用尚不完全清楚,然而草本药与

  草本药物的治疗作用与处方药的药效相似,因此让你的医生或药剂师了解你任何选用的药物是很重要的。关于草本药物对避孕药的影响我们了解的非常少。有一种草药叫St. John’s Wort,会影响避孕药的效果。其他药物,如nature’s Prozac,不推荐与口服避孕药同时服用,因为它会改变避孕药的药效。登陆我推荐的网站,你可以了解更多的关于处方药和草本药的相互作用。

  

  问题

  Can I drink alcohol while taking the pill?

  服用期间可以喝酒吗?

  专家答疑

  Moderate alcohol intake should have no effect on the effectiveness of the pill. That being said, some studies suggest that the pill may enhance the effects of alcohol. Opinions tend to vary on this point. One theory is that when females drink alcohol they tend to have a higher blood alcohol concentration (BAC) due perhaps to a difference in body mass compared to men (ref: mckinley). There is also some evidence that alcohol consumption may interfere with the metabolism of the hormones in the pill, resulting in an increased incidence of breakthrough bleeding. These effects are minor and may not necessarily occur in all pill users.

  More important is the issue of heavy drinking, which can eventually lead to liver disease, one of the major restrictions to oral contraceptive use.

  You can obtain further information on the effects of alcohol on the pill by visiting the site I’ve recommended.

  适量饮酒不会影响避孕药的效果。一些研究表明避孕药会增强酒精的刺激。对此观点不一。妇女饮酒时,血液中酒精浓度增高, 有证据表明饮酒可以干扰避孕药中激素的代谢,导致突破出血的发生率增高。但这些作用很微小,不一定所有的服药者都会发生。重要的是过量饮酒,它可以引发肝病,这就限制了避孕药的服用。你可以通过推荐的网站了解更多的关于酒精对避孕药影响的知识。

  Side Effect 副作用

  

  问题

  How does the pill compare to other birth control methods in terms of risks vs. benefits?

  与其他避孕方法相比,口服避孕药的风险及益处如何?

  专家答疑

  The pill is one of the most reliable, reversible methods of birth control, providing close to 100 percent protection against pregnancy when taken exactly as directed. In fact, pregnancy involves a higher health risk than taking the pill. Additionally, pill users have been shown to have a lower risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer, and fewer benign ovarian cysts, breast diseases, bleeding disorders and hot flushes when starting menopause than non-pill 山东大学附属生殖医院,二代试管婴儿具体多少钱 users. However, there are other factors you may want to consider when weighing the pros and cons of the pill versus other birth control methods.

  The pill may be an appropriate choice if you’re looking for a method that:

  · Is simple and effective

  · Does not interfere with spontaneity during lovemaking

  · Can be used from teenage years to menopause

  · Makes periods lighter, more regular and less painful

  · Allows you to become pregnant when you stop taking it

  · The pill is a safe choice for healthy women, however, the pill is not suitable for you if:

  · You are pregnant

  · You suffer from unusual vaginal bleeding

  · You have a history of blood clots, stroke, heart attack or suffer from chest pain

  · You are smoker and over the age of 35

  · You have cancer of the breast or sex organs

  · You have liver disease or jaundice

  · You have difficulty remembering to take a pill every day

  Please remember, these are only guidelines. Each individual 山东大学附属生殖医院,二代试管婴儿具体多少钱 is unique. Your healthcare provider will be able to assess which birth control method carries the least risk and greatest benefits for you. To learn more about the risks and benefits of using the pill, visit Mircette's Web site or the other online resources I’ve recommended.

  避孕药是最安全、可逆的避孕方法之一,如果按照说明书服用,避孕效果几乎为100%。实际上,与妊娠相关的风险要比服用避孕药的风险高。此外,与未服用避孕药者相比,口服避孕药者发生卵巢癌、内膜癌卵巢囊肿及乳腺疾病的几率低,经期不规则出血及潮热的发生率也低。然而,当权衡避孕药与其他的避孕方法的利弊时,也要考虑其他因素。

  如果你要选择这样的避孕方法,避孕药则是合适的选择。

  方便、有效。

  不影响自然的性生活。

  从青少年期到绝经期都可以服用

  可减少经期出血、使经期变得更规则、缓解痛经。

  停药后即可妊娠。

  对健康妇女而言,选择避孕药是安全的,然而不适合有下面情况的人群:

  妊娠

  有不规则阴道出血者

  有血块、中风、心脏病或胸痛史者

  吸烟且年龄>35岁者

  有乳癌或生殖道肿瘤者

  · 有肝病或黄疸者

  · 很难天天服药者

  · 请记住,这只是一般性指导,要针对个体差异。医生会为你选择危险最小、最适合你的避孕方法。你可以登陆Mircette's Web site了解服用避孕药的风险及益处。

  

  问题 I suffer from monthly cramping. Will the pill help my cramps or make them worse?

  我患有痛经,避孕药能减轻还是加重痛经呢?

  答疑

  Women often report that their periods are more regular and less painful when taking the birth control pill. 山东大学附属生殖医院,二代试管婴儿具体多少钱 Studies have shown that menstrual pain is 65 percent less common in pill usersthan in non-users since the pill regulates the menstrual cycle. Moreover, blood loss is usually lower in women who take the pill, which means those susceptible have less anemia.

  Before taking the pill, you should see your healthcare provider to confirm that your cramps are normal and not due to an underlying medical condition. One strategy used to control monthly cramping is a continuous pill-taking regimen. This differs from the normal 21-day schedule in that there is no seven-day pill-free period. Please consult with your healthcare provider to determine whether or not such a regimen is right for you. You can obtain more information on how the pill might provide relief from monthly cramps by visiting the sites I’ve recommended.

  服用避孕药以后,可使妇女经期变得规则且缓解疼痛。研究显示与未服药者相比,65%的服药者月经变规律,痛经减轻,甚至月经血也减少了,进一步可减轻贫血。

  服药前应先做妇科检查,排除其他因素引起的痛经。持续服用避孕药是治疗痛经的良策。但与服用21片的方法不一样,因为治疗痛经时没有7天的停药期。请咨询医生,了解这种治疗方法是否适合你登陆我推荐的网站 ,可以查询避孕药缓解痛经的机理。

  

  问题

  I have been having unusual heavy bleeding for some time now. Should I consider taking the pill?

  现在我有严重的不规则出血,我能服药吗?

  专家答疑

  Heavy or unusual bleeding can have a number of underlying causes and should always be assessed by a healthcare provider. In the absence of any medical problems that would prohibit its use, the pill is often prescribed for women who suffer from menorraghia, or heavy menstrual bleeding. Since the pill helps to regulate the menstrual cycle, many women whose periods are excessive or prolonged report lighter, shorter and less painful periods with pill use. If you have more questions concerning your menstrual cycle, I recommend speaking with your healthcare provider or visiting the Web sites I’ve recommended.

  多种原因可以引起大量或不规则出血,应由医生查明出血的原因,如果没有医学问题的话,是不需要服此药的。这种避孕药适用于月经过多或经期大量出血的患者。避孕药能调节月经周期,因此服用后可以改善月经过多或经期过长的症状,缓解痛经。 如果还有其他关于月经周期的疑问,可以咨询医生或访问我推荐的网站。

  

  问题

  I am prone to acne. What kind of effect will the pill have on my skin?

  我易长痤疮,避孕药对皮肤有什么益处呢?

  专家答疑

  With some pills, there can be an improvement in acne. It is thought that an excess of male hormones (androgens) in a woman’s body encourages the excess oil production that leads to acne. Most oral contraceptives, including the new low-dose pills, provide the beneficial side effect of minimalizing acne by balancing the hormones. For some acne sufferers, the pill may be the ideal alternative to antibiotics or acne medication such as Accutane, which is associated with birth defects.

  避孕药可以改善痤疮。妇女体内过量的雄激素能使机体产生大量的油脂,引发痤疮。大多数的口服避孕药,包括新一代的低剂量避孕药,通过调节激素水平,使其副作用减到最小。对一些长痤疮的妇女来说,避孕药是理想的替代药物,可以替代抗生素或异维A酸等对生殖有害的痤疮治疗药物。

  To learn more about the pill’s positive effect on acne, you might want to visit some the site I’ve recommended.

  

  问题

  How will the pill affect my periods and my physical and emotional well-being?

  避孕药是如何调整我的周期及影响我的身心健康?

  答疑

  Every woman reacts differently to the oral contraceptive pill. If you’re using the pill for the first time, you may need time to adjust to the hormones. Some of the most common side effects experienced by first-time pill users include breakthrough bleeding, breast tenderness, weight gain, nausea, chloasma (brown spots on the face as a response in some women to the female hormone estrogen), headaches, fluid retention and, occasionally, mood changes. These signs are not hazardous to your health, and normally disappear after the first three months of pill use. Your healthcare provider may choose to start you on the monophasic pill. The hormones in the monophasic pill remain constant throughout the month, so it’s less likely to cause breakthrough bleeding.

  Additionally, the pill may provide other benefits besides contraception for some women. Those who have heavy or prolonged periods may find their periods are lighter and shorter when they are taking the pill. Those who experience severe cramps with their periods may also notice that cramps improve or completely disappear.

  Women who take the pill may also find that their sense of well-being improves since they are relieved of the worry over unintended pregnancy. Many couples prefer the pill because it allows for the kind of spontaneity that some other birth control methods do not provide.

  Keep in mind that the pill does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). If you or your partner have other partners, you should use condoms in conjunction with the pill.

  不同妇女对服用避孕药后的反应是不一样的。如果你初次服用此药,机体需要一段适应时间。一般最多的副作用包括突破性出血、乳房涨痛、轻微的体重增加、恶心、色斑、头疼、液体储留,偶尔会有情绪改变。这些副作用并不会影响你的健康,因为服用3个月后,一般症状都会消失。

  医生可能会给你选择服用单相药片,可整个月服用,因此很少会出现突破性出血。

  此外,服用避孕药,会给一些妇女带来非避孕益处:减少出血或缩短周期,痛经改善或完全消失。服药后,因为消除了怀孕的恐惧,提高了生活质量。这种避孕方式使性生活变得自然,这是其他方式不能做到的,因此受很多夫妇的欢迎。

  记住避孕药并不防止性病的传播。如果有多个性伴侣,应联合使用避孕套。

  

  问题

  I've heard that certain cancers are associated with the pill. Is this true?

  传说避孕药与某种癌症相关,这是真的吗?

  答疑

  There are many myths surrounding cancer and the pill. Keep in mind that the pill is probably the most researched drug on the market. The question of whether or not there’s an increased risk of breast cancer for pill users has been consistently disproved by numerous epidemiological studies. Additionally, extensive studies have shown that the pill may actually protect against certain cancers, most notably those of the endometrium, or uterine lining, and ovaries.

  That being said, some studies have shown a small increased risk of breast cancer in certain sub-groups of women up to nine years after stopping the pill. However, there appears to be no increased risk in this select group of women beyond the nine or 10-year period after discontinuation.

  有多种关于避孕药与癌症关系的说法。避孕药是市场上研究最彻底的药物。经过大量的流行病学研究证实,服药病不会增加服药者乳腺癌的发生率。此外,大量的研究表明避孕药可以抑制某种癌症的发生,最明显的就是能抑制内膜癌、宫颈癌和卵巢癌。有跟踪报道,停服9年后可能会轻微增加乳腺癌的危险。然而,9或10年后并不增加此危险。

  

  Will the hormones in the pill affect my ability to become pregnant later on?

  避孕药能影响以后的怀孕能力吗?

  答疑

  You should know that recent studies show that fertility decreases naturally with age. The pill is considered to be one of the most reliable, reversible methods of birth control and pill use has not been shown to interfere with future fertility. The hormones in the pill, which are similar to those produced in the body, keep hormone levels in the blood above a certain level, thereby instructing the ovaries not to let any egg cells ripen. In other words, the ovaries are resting during the time you are taking the pill. Once the pill is discontinued, your natural hormonal cycle resumes and with it, your ability to become pregnant.

  近期研究认为随着年龄增长生育能力下降。目前避孕药是公认的最安全、可逆的避孕措施,且不影响以后的生育能力。避孕药中的激素成分与自身产生的激素相同,

  使血液中的激素水平保持在一定水平以上,抑制卵巢排出成熟卵泡。换言之,服药期间,卵巢处于抑制状态。一旦停服,机体恢复自然激素调控周期,可以妊娠。

  

  I’m not overweight, but I’m not pencil-thin either. Will the pill make me gain weight?

  尽管我不苗条,但不超重。服药后体重会增加吗?

  There are many myths and misconceptions surrounding weight change and the pill. Very few women actually experience significant weight gain in response to the pill. During the first year of use, the majority of women report little (i.e. less than five pounds), if any, increase in weight. Approximately one-quarter of women report weight gain greater than five pounds; however, as much as 20 percent of women actually report weight loss of more than two kilograms. Much of what is perceived as weight gain is actually fluid retention, which occurs in response to estrogen, one of the hormones in the pill. This fluid retention tends to be less noticeable during the pill-free week when no hormones are being taken. Today抯 lower dose pills contain state-of-the-art progestins, which are designed to prevent weight change. A sensible diet and adequate exercise will also help to keep weight at normal levels.

  服用避孕药与体重之间的关系有很多误解。服用后,几乎没有体重明显增加的报道。在服药的第一年里,大多数妇女体重增加小于5磅,但是有20%妇女体重减轻2公斤以上。实际上,大多数自觉体重增加是由孕激素导致体液储留而引起的。停药期,体液储留不明显。目前的避孕药含有低剂量的孕激素,可防止体重变化。适当饮食及体育锻炼可以使体重控制在正常范围内。

  

  问题

  Is it better to use the pill for a short period of time rather than long-term to avoid complications or side effects?

  是否应短期服用避孕药,而不应长期服药,以避免出现并发症或副作用呢?

  Fifty years of research into the pill have shown there is no evidence of negative effects from long-term pill use. In fact, studies suggest that pill users have a 54 percent lower risk of ovarian cancer and a 67 percent lower risk of endometrial cancer after eight years of taking the pill. Moreover, 10 years after discontinuation, pill users and non-pill users show no difference in their risk for developing cancer or stroke. Pill users also report fewer bleeding disorders and hot flushes when starting menopause than non-pill users.

  Generally speaking, once your system becomes accustomed to the pill, it’s advisable to stay on it, not only for continuous protection against pregnancy, but also to reap the non-contraceptive benefits

  经过5年时间研究认为无证据表明长期服用避孕药会产生副作用。已证实,服用避孕药8年以上,可以降低54%的卵巢癌发生率及67%的内膜癌发生率。停服10年后,曾服药者与未服药者发生癌症或中风的发生率相同。一般来讲,一旦机体适应服药,继续服用是很明智的,不仅可以持续避孕,而且可以获得非避孕益处。

  

  问题

  I am using a hormonal method of birth control. My partner has noticed that I am sometimes in a blue mood. Is it the hormones?

  我现在使用激素类的避孕药,男朋友发现有时我的情绪低落,这是由激素引起的吗?

  Feeling depressed or in a blue mood may be caused by any number of factors other than the birth control pill. Major studies have shown no link to the pill and serious psychiatric illness, including severe depression. Occasionally, minor feelings of depression may occur since the pill can potentially lower vitamin B6 levels in some women. In this case, supplementation with B6 may be necessary, but it’s important to see your healthcare provider first. If you’re experiencing side effects, such as headaches or loss of libido, these could all be reasons for your depressed mood and you should inform your Healthcare provider. He/she may decide to switch you to another type of pill, which may be better suited to you. Once you become established on your new pill, you may find that any bothersome side effects have subsided.

  沮丧或抑郁,可以由避孕药以外的很多因素引起。大量的研究表明口服避孕药与严重的精神疾病(包括抑郁)无关。但是避孕药有潜在降低V6的作用,偶尔可以出现轻微的情绪低落。对这些妇女,补充V6是必要的,但首要的是看医生。

  如果你出现头疼或性欲降低等副作用,可能是由于情绪沮丧引起的,应与医生沟通,医生可能会换一种更适合你的避孕药,一旦你适应新的避孕药,那些副作用会消失。

  

  问题

  When is it appropriate to switch from one pill to another?

  应在何时更换避孕药?

  答疑

  to another type of birth control pill unless you’re experiencing troublesome side effects from your current brand. Minor side effects, such as headaches, nausea, breakthrough bleeding and bloatedness, usually resolve after about three cycles. In the event that they persist, your doctor may consider switching you to a different pill formulation. Side effects many women experience are often due to the amount of estrogen in the pill. Estrogen amounts vary from between 20 mcg and 50 mcg depending on the brand. Your physician will likely start you on a low-dose combined pill that contains estrogen and progestin. Low-dose pills contain 35 mcg or less of estrogen and offer reliable birth control with minimal side effects

  除非有麻烦的副作用才需更换目前使用避孕药的品牌。头疼、恶心、突破性出血和体重增加等轻微的副作用,一般会在服药3个周期后消失。如果有持久的副作用,医生会考虑为你更换其他的避孕产品。

  大多数妇女出现的副作用是由于避孕药中的雌激素导致的。不同种类的避孕药雌激素的含量从20 mcg到50 mcg不等。医生开始会让你服用低剂量的、避孕可靠且副作用小的复方避孕药,其雌激素含量≤35 mcg。

  

  问题

  How long will it take me to adjust to a new pill?

  适应新的避孕药需多久时间?

  答疑

  This all depends on how well your body adapts to the particular type of pill your doctor has prescribed. These days, there are over 20 different kinds of birth control pills available, which make it easy for your doctor to tailor a pill to your individual needs. In many cases, it can take three to four cycles (packs) of pill before the body fully adjusts to the hormones contained in the pill. For many women, adjusting to a new pill may be easier since the side effects associated with their previous brand will hopefully be diminished in the new pill. You should try to stay on a particular pill for at least three cycles unless the side effects are too severe for you to tolerate.

  这完全取决于机体对这种避孕药的适应能力。目前有20多种避孕药,这样方便医生根据你的需求选择适合你的产品。大部分产品,机体需要适应3-4个周期。对很多妇女而言,很容易适应新的避孕药,因为以前服用药时出现的副作用消失了。

  除非副作用难以忍受,你最好坚持服用某种药3个周期以上。

  

  问题

  I’ve heard rumors that the hormones in the pill can affect the developing fetus? Is there any truth to this?

  我听到许多关于避孕药会影响胎儿发育的传闻,这是真的吗?

  答疑

  There is little evidence to support the idea that the hormones in the pill have any adverse effects on the fetus. In fact, the majority of medical literature is largely reassuring about exposure to oral contraceptives in pregnancy. Studies indicate that the incidence of birth defects in babies born to women who took the pill during pregnancy are no higher than those who were not exposed to oral contraceptives. In the normal population, at least two percent of babies will be born with an important abnormality; however, the risk does not appear to increase with pill use during pregnancy.

  无任何临床证据表明避孕药会对胎儿发育产生负面影响。相反,大量医学文献证实妊娠期服用避孕药是安全的。研究表明与未服药者相比,妊娠期服用避孕药妇女所生婴儿出现先天缺陷的几率并不增高。出生人口中,一般严重异常的出现几率为2%,然而妊娠期间服用避孕药,这个发生率并不因此增高。

  

  Can I still take the pill when I am breastfeeding?

  哺乳期间能服用避孕药吗?

  答疑

  This depends on the type of birth control pill you are taking. Breastfeeding is not advisable if you’re taking the combination oral contraceptive pill (COC), which contains both estrogen and progestin. The COC can reduce the volume of breast milk and change its quality. Additionally, some of the hormones in the COC may be transferred to the baby. There are no studies to show that the hormones in the pill would seriously harm the baby. If you’re taking the progestin-only or mini-pill, you may breastfeed. Studies have shown that the mini-pill does not have any effect on the quality or quantity of the breast milk, and little, if any, progestin is transferred to the infant via the breast milk. In fact, the mini-pill even provides a modest boost to milk production, and studies have shown that women using the mini-pill breastfeed longer and add supplementary feeding at a later time. The combination of lactation and the mini-pill is nearly 100 percent effective at preventing pregnancy.

  这取决于服用避孕药的种类。哺乳期不适合服用复合型口服避孕药。因为它能减少乳汁分泌量及质量。此外,复合型口服避孕药中的某种激素可以通过乳汁进入胎儿体内。但无研究表明激素会严重损害胎儿。

  如果你服用的是仅含孕激素的避孕药或微丸,可以母乳喂养。研究发现微丸对乳汁分泌量及质量无任何影响,而且孕激素几乎不通过乳汁分泌进入婴儿体内。实际上,微丸对乳汁分泌有轻微的促进作用。资料证实使用微丸的时间越长,添加辅食的时间越晚。哺乳期使用微丸避孕的有效率几乎为100%。

  

  Will the hormones in the pill affect the baby while I'm breastfeeding?

  哺乳期服用避孕药对婴儿有影响吗?

  Breastfeeding is not advisable if you’re taking the combination oral contraceptive pill (COC), which contains both estrogen and progestin. The COC can reduce the volume of breast milk and change its quality. Additionally, some of the hormones in the COC may be transferred to the baby. There are no studies to show that the hormones in the pill would seriously harm the baby.

  The progestin-only or mini-pill is considered to be the safest pill for use during lactation since very little progestin is excreted in the breast milk. The mini-pill can be started three days after delivery.

  哺乳期不适合服用复合型口服避孕药(包含雌孕激素)。因为它能减少乳汁分泌量及影响质量。此外,复合型口服避孕药中的某种激素可以通过乳汁进入胎儿体内。但无研究表明激素会严重损害胎儿。

  微丸被认为是哺乳期服用的最安全的避孕药,因为孕激素几乎不通过乳汁分泌进入婴儿体内。分娩3天后可以服用此药。

  

  Is there anything I can do about breakthrough bleeding?

  出现突破性出血时我该怎么办呢?

  Breakthrough bleeding due to the pill is a minor side effect that is most likely to occur during the first three months as the body adapts to the hormones in the pill. This should resolve in a few cycles. If breakthrough bleeding does not resolve after the first three to four cycles of pill use, you should contact your healthcare provider. This may be an indication that you need a different kind of pill. Additionally, other causes for irregular bleeding should not be ruled out.

  由避孕药引起的突破性出血是一般的副作用,通常发生在服药的最初3个月适应过程中。几个周期后症状就会消失。如果3-4个周期后出血还未停止,需咨询医生,你可能需更换避孕药的种类。同时,不排除其他原因导致出血的可能性。

  

  Once I stop taking the pill, how long will I have to wait to consider becoming pregnant? Is there any such thing as getting pregnant too soon after stopping the pill?

  停药多久可以怀孕?停药后即怀孕是否过急了?

  For most women, the ability to become pregnant resumes almost immediately after stopping the pill. However, it’s a good idea to use a barrier method of birth control for two to three months until your natural cycle returns to normal. This makes it easier to calculate the beginning of a pregnancy. There is some suggestion that the pill may alter vitamin and mineral metabolism, and that waiting at least two months allows vitamin and mineral levels to normalize. Your healthcare provider may prescribe vitamin supplements, including folic acid. This is a supplement that all women should take even before they become pregnant since folic acid protects the fetus from developing neural tube defects.

  对大多数妇女而言,停药后马上就可恢复生育能力。但是,最好先用屏障避孕法,等待2-3个月,以恢复自然月经周期。这样方便计算预产期。

  避孕药可能改变维生素和矿物质代谢,至少等待2个月使其恢复正常水平。

  医生可能用维生素补充治疗,包括叶酸。所有的妇女孕前都应补充这些物质,因为叶酸可以预防神经管缺陷。

  Should I use another form of birth control when switching pills or other hormonal methods?

  There may be times when it is necessary to use a backup method of birth control when switching from one pill to another. If you’re taking the combination pill, that is, one that contains two hormones, estrogen and progestin, and you are switching pills, your doctor may advise you to finish your current brand and start your new pills on the same day as you normally would. In this case, you should not have to worry about using a backup method of birth control.

  If you抮e switching from a progestin-only or mini-pill, you will need to use a backup method of birth control, such as a condom, for the first month after starting your new pills.

  When switching to the vaginal ring from a combination pill, you may insert the ring within seven days after the last combined (estrogen and progestin) oral contraceptive tablet and no later than the day that a new cycle of pills would have been started. No backup method is needed.

  If you’re switching to the vaginal ring from a progestin-only method, such as the mini-pill, the hormonal implant, the contraceptive injection or a progestin-containing intrauterine device (IUD), you must use an additional method of contraception for the first seven days after insertion of the ring.

  You can obtain more information on switching hormonal methods of birth control by visiting the online resource I’ve recommended.

  Click here for the answer to your next question.

  What’s involved if I decide to switch from the pill or other hormonal method to one of the newer intrauterine devices (IUD)?

  我该如何从避孕药转向使用宫内节育器呢?

  The IUD is an effective contraceptive method from the first day of insertion. That is, from day one you are protected from unintended pregnancy. If you decide to switch from the pill or other hormonal method to an IUD, the insertion can be done anytime during your cycle, but preferably just after a menstrual period, whether you’re on the pill or not. Some medical authorities suggest using a condom for the first few days after insertion of an IUD to guard against potential pelvic infection after the insertion procedure.

  从置入宫内节育器的当天开始它就是有效的避孕措施,即可以发生无防护的性生活。可以在随时从避孕药或其他激素避孕措施改换使用宫内节育器,但无论是否服药避孕药,最好在月经刚结束时置入节育器。医学权威机构推荐在置入节育器的开始几天使用安全套,防止宫腔感染。

  I do a lot of business travel and pass through numerous different time zones. Should I adjust my pill-taking schedule in order for it to still be effective?

  我经常出差且穿过不同时区,那我需要调节服药时间以保证药效吗?

  Confusion over when to take the pill commonly occurs in air travelers who pass through different time zones and may jeopardize the pill’s effectiveness. For instance, if you’re flying west and you normally take your tablet at bedtime, you might delay taking your next pill for many hours or more than a day. While it may seem inconvenient, using a watch set to your regular home time may be useful for maintaining your pill-taking routine while abroad. If in doubt, or if you want to switch to a morning routine, take your pill earlier than usual.

  一般经常出差穿过不同时区的人会问,我应该何时服药呢?会影响药效吗?例如你习惯睡前服药,如果去西方,你将推迟推迟几个小时甚至一天以上服药。那么,你可以把手表调整至北京时间,这样可以使你在常规时间服药。如果有疑问或想将时间该在早晨,可以比常规时间提前一些服药。

  如果很难调整服药时间,你可以考虑使用长效避孕措施,如阴道环,它可以提供一个月的避孕作用。

  I am planning to take a vacation but don’t want to have my period while I’m away. Is there any way to delay or reschedule my period for a more convenient time?

  我计划渡假,但不想那时来月经。有办法推迟或把我的周期调整至合适的时间吗?

  Yes, but check with your healthcare provider first. If you desire to reschedule your period until the following month, you will likely be advised to finish your 21-day course of active or hormone-containing pills and immediately begin a new 21-day sequence of pills. This means that if your package of birth control pills contains 28 pills, you will take your pills for 21 days, discard the placebo or reminder pills, and begin a new pack of pills right away. Some pill formulas are now designed with a shortened pill-free interval (two days rather than seven). Mircette's Web site contains information on this type of pill.

  Some women are concerned that missing a period may be harmful; however, there is no evidence to suggest this is true. Healthcare providers routinely use this pill-taking strategy to treat problems related to the menstrual cycle, such as excessive bleeding, premenstrual syndrome and endometriosis.

  当然有办法了,但首先要咨询医生。如果想将月经调至下个月,可能会建议你服用完21片活性药片后,立即开始服用下一盒药,无停药期。如果你的避孕药是28片/盒,你只能服用前21片,丢弃剩余的7片安慰剂,继续服用下一盒药片。目前服用某些避孕药时,可以缩短停药期,即停药期可以短于7天,但绝对不能超过7天。

  一些妇女担心少一次周期会影响身体健康,然而这是无科学根据的。针对周期紊乱(出血过多。经前紧张综合症和内膜异位)医生会给出合适的服药方案,

  I am diabetic, can I still take the pill?

  If you have diabetes, you are already at risk for coronary artery disease and damage to your blood vessels. The estrogens contained in birth control pills may elevate blood sugar levels, which may in turn increase these risk factors.

  我是糖尿病患者,我还能继续服药吗?

  答疑

  In some cases, a low-dose estrogen pill may be prescribed. To be a candidate for this pill, you must be free of any diabetes-related complications. In addition, you must not smoke, have high blood pressure or be overweight. Your healthcare provider will be the one to determine if you are a good candidate. There are other effective contraceptive options, such as barrier methods, the intrauterine device (IUD) and the contraceptive implant, available to you. Both the IUD and contraceptive implant provide reliable, long-term contraception.

  有时医生会处方含低剂量雌激素的避孕药。服用这些避孕药时,必须没有任何与糖尿病相关的并发症。此外,必须不吸烟,无高血压或体重超重。医生会判断你是否适合服用此药。

  你也可以选择其他有效的避孕措施,如屏障避孕法,长效避孕工具如宫内节育器。

  I have a family history of blood clots. Should I take the pill?

  我有家族血栓(血液凝结)史,我能服用避孕药吗?

  The combined oral contraceptive pill (COC), that is, a pill containing two hormones, estrogen and progestin, is not recommended for women who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This includes diseases of the heart and blood vessels, such as thrombosis or blood clots. One of the risk factors for thrombosis is a family history of this condition.

  However, if you have a close family member with unexplained thrombosis at an early age, this does not mean that you cannot take the progestin-only pill, also known as the POP or mini-pill. Since the mini-pill does not contain estrogen, it is considered a safe and effective alternative for women with a family history of blood clots. Other progestin-only methods that are suitable for women with cardiovascular risk factors are injectable contraception and the contraceptive implant.

  If you are pill user and do not have any history of blood clots, be sure to discuss any tenderness or pain in your legs or elsewhere with your healthcare provider during your regularly scheduled visits.

  复合口服避孕药包含雌、孕两种激素。有心血管高危因素的人不适宜服用此药,包括血栓和血液凝结。其中血栓的高危因素之一就是有家族史。然而,如果家族有血缘相近的成员早期有不明原因的血栓,这不代表你不适合仅含有孕激素的避孕药,如POP或含低剂量孕激素的药片,因为它不含有孕激素,对有血栓家族史的妇女来说,是安全有效的药物。其他仅含孕激素的注射型避孕药和宫内节育器,适合于有心血管高位因素的妇女。

  如果你服用避孕药且没有血栓病史,如果出现任何腿部或其他部位的不适或疼痛,请及时咨询医生。

  I am over 35 and smoke. I’ve heard that smoking and the pill don’t mix. Do I have to quit?

  我年龄超过35岁且吸烟。听说吸烟时不能服用避孕药,我需戒烟吗?

  Smoking is bad for you whether you take the pill or not; however, the pill makes the dangerous habit of smoking more dangerous. It is now known that smoking is a major risk factor for arterial disease in women who take the pill. While the risk of heart attack, stroke and blood clots is very low in young women, this begins to change after the age of 35. Healthcare providers recommend discontinuation of the pill at the age of 35 if you are a smoker. Over-the-counter medications, such as nicotine patches or gum, may also increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in those who smoke and take the pill. On a positive note, the newer third-generation oral contraceptive pills containing selective progestins tend to carry a lower risk of arterial disease than earlier varieties. But, it is still advisable to quit smoking if you抮e taking the pill or are thinking about starting.

  无论是服用避孕药,否吸烟都有害健康;然而,避孕药会加重吸烟的危害。已知吸烟是导致服用避孕药妇女出现动脉血管疾病最主要的危险因素。然而年轻妇女心脏病、中风和血栓的发生率低,但35岁以后这些危险的发生率就会增高。因此医生建议35岁以上的吸烟妇女停用避孕药。且服用避孕药的吸烟妇女,烟碱或口香糖同样可以增高心血管疾病的发生率。值得高兴的是,含有高选择性孕激素的第三代口服避孕药与早期的避孕药相比,心血管疾病的发生风险降低了。不过,无论打算开始服用还是已经服用避孕药,戒烟是明智的。

  

  I am concerned that insertion methods of birth control such as the vaginal ring, diaphragm, sponge or a female condom may be difficult to handle. Are these methods difficult to master and are they effective?

  我担心置入法避孕如阴道环,阴道隔膜、阴道海面或女性避孕套很难操作。这些方法很难掌握吗?有效果吗?

  Barrier methods of birth control such as the diaphragm, the sponge or condom require some practice. In the beginning, there may indeed be times when inserting these devices will seem challenging, but practice makes perfect. To avoid frustration, I recommend that you practice inserting a contraceptive device prior to engaging in sexual activity. If you haven抰 mastered the insertion procedure after several attempts, you may want to make a follow-up visit with your healthcare provider. If you consider the diaphragm, sponge or female condom to be a nuisance, you might consider a long-term method of birth control such as the contraceptive implant. The implant consists of several rods that are inserted in a small incision under the skin of the inner upper arm to provide contraceptive protection for five years. However, some discomfort and irritation can be associated with this method.

  屏障避孕法如阴道隔膜、阴道海面或女性避孕套需要一些练习。开始时需要一些时间置入阴道,这可能是种挑战,但练习后就会好些。为避免失败,建议性生活前练习操作。如果你练习几次后掌握了置入方法,之后应咨询医生。如果觉得阴道隔膜、阴道海面或女性避孕套操作很麻烦,可以选择长效避孕措施,如皮下埋植,可有5年的药效。然而,可能会有不适或刺激反应。

  有种避孕方法,即避孕环,能提供舒适、方便持久的避孕作用。很容易将避孕环置入阴道,因为它不需植入在特定位置或固定在阴道。

  Another method that offers comfort, convenience and continuous protection against pregnancy is the vaginal ring. The ring is very easily inserted because it does not have to be placed in a specific position or location in the vagina.

  www.mycontraceptive.com/answer.asp?display=93&segment=new

  I've had more than one sexual partner say that using condoms 'may reduce sensitivity'. Should I switch birth control methods?

  多个性伴侣说使用避孕套会降低敏感性,我应该更换避孕方法吗?

  When used with a spermicide, the condom can be an effective, though not entirely reliable, method of birth control. However, the condom-spermicide combination offers excellent protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). If you have more than one sexual partner, protection against STDs is very important and few other birth control methods offer this level of protection. Unfortunately, the condom may reduce sensitivity for the male partner during intercourse and can also interfere with the spontaneity of lovemaking. These problems may be remedied by opting for a more fuss-free type of birth control such as the pill or vaginal ring. The vaginal ring is a hormonal method of birth control that provides the same level of protection as the pill, but is inserted monthly。Remember, you should continue to use the condom combined with the pill, ring or other hormonal methods until you’re in a committed relationship

  采用带有杀精剂的避孕套避孕时,避孕效果尽管不是100%,但也是有效的避孕措施。当避孕套和杀精剂联合使用时,可以有效的防止性传播疾病。如果有多个性伴侣,防止性传播疾病是非常重要的,几乎没有其他方法能提供这么有效的防止性疾病传播作用。不幸的是,避孕套能降低男性性生活时的敏感性,而避孕药或阴道环可以消除这种作用.阴道环是激素类避孕措施,和避孕药一样使机体保持一定的激素水平,但需每月放置一次。切记,在有稳定的性伴侣前,需采用口服避孕药、阴道环或其他激素类避孕法配合使用避孕套。

  

  Is it okay to use the same condom twice?

  避孕套可以重复使用二次吗?

  No. You must use a fresh condom each time you engage in a form of sexual activity that requires condom usage. Previously used condoms have lost most of their elasticity and may harbor active sperm, which could make their way to the uterus and possibly lead to pregnancy. Once you have finished using a condom, you should dispose of it immediately. If you’re relying on condoms as your main source of protection, I recommend carrying extra condoms with you at all times.

  If the condom doesn’t go on right the first time, you will have to start all over again and use a new condom to ensure a proper fit. After ejaculation, you must also be sure to hold the condom at the base before withdrawal of the penis to prevent semen from leaking out.

  不可以。每次性生活时必须使用新的避孕套。使用过的避孕套失去弹性,储存活性精子,导致怀孕。避孕套一旦使用过,就应立即丢弃掉。如果依靠避孕套避孕,最好每次使用2个。

  如果开始觉得避孕套不合适,就应重新换一个,保证使用舒适。射精后,必须确保取出阴茎前捏住根部拿出避孕套,防止精液流出来。

  

  If I can feel the vaginal ring, does that mean it’s not inserted properly?

  如果我能感觉到阴道环,这是放置的位置不适吗?

  Although some women may be aware of the ring in the vagina, the vast majority of women do not feel it once it is in place. If you feel discomfort, the ring is probably not inserted back far enough in the vagina. Use your finger to gently push the ring further. There is no danger of the ring being pushed too far up in the vagina or getting lost. The vaginal ring can be inserted only as far as the end of the vagina, where the cervix (the narrow, lower end of the uterus) will block it from going any further.

  尽管有一些妇女可以感觉到阴道环,但大部分妇女置入阴道环后感觉不到它。如果你感觉不适,可能是因为放置的不够深。用你的手指轻轻把它再向里推些。阴道环放置过深或丢掉并无危险。最深可以放在阴道远端,有宫颈挡着,不能再进一步深入了。

  

  I would like to save sex for marriage, however, I am under pressure from my friends to lose my virginity. Should I give up the idea of abstinence?

  结婚前我要禁止性生活。然而男朋友对我施加压力,想要我的初夜。我应该放弃禁欲的想法吗?

  From a contraception standpoint, abstinence is the most effective method for preventing an unwanted pregnancy. It is also highly protective against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). These two factors may be reason enough to wait until you are in a stable or permanent relationship before deciding to have intercourse. Sexual relations are not to be taken lightly; without appropriate birth control an unintended pregnancy can occur. Indeed, pregnancy by itself carries its own risks. If you抮e feeling overwhelmed by peer pressure, you should talk to your healthcare provider or a family planning clinic to discuss your feelings and gain moral support. At the same time, you may want to ask about the birth control choices available to you in the event that you no longer wish to abstain.

  从避孕角度考虑,禁欲是最有效的避孕措施,也完全防止性疾病的传播。这两点理由足以让你在建立稳定、持久的性关系以后再开始性生活。不应轻视性关系,未采用恰当的避孕措施可导致意外怀孕。如果你觉得压力太大,可以咨询医生获得更多的帮助。同时,可以获得某种避孕措施,以备放弃禁欲之需。

  

  

  How long does the patch take to become fully effective once it has been applied?

  使用贴片多久才完全发挥药效?

  If you start using the patch the first day of your menstrual period then it will become effective before your next cycle and no backup birth control is required. Many women, however, like to begin their birth control cycle at the beginning or the end of a week. This helps them to keep track of where they are in their birth control cycle. If you choose to start the patch using this tracking method, and there are several days between the onset of your menstruation and the first day you use the patch, using a backup birth control for the first seven days is strongly recommended.

  如果从月经的第一天开始使用贴片,在这个周期都有避孕作用,不用使用其他避孕措施。然而许多妇女喜欢在周始或周末开始采用避孕措施,这样方便计算避孕周期。如果采用这种方法避孕,采用贴片的前七天应使用安全套。

  

  What do I do if the Patch falls off?

  如果贴片掉了应如何处理?

  Although there is a low rate of occurrence reported, there is always the possibility of the patch falling off. In the event that this does happen, you will need to quickly determine how long it has been off, and then act accordingly. If the patch has been off for less than 24 hours it can simply be reapplied. That is if the patch you were using is still clean and does not have debris or other foreign material stuck to it, in which case you would use a new patch. Either way, under any of these circumstances, your patch-hange Day-schedule will not be affected.

  If you think that the patch has been off for more than 24 hours, or you simply have no idea how long it has been, you would apply a new patch and start a new four-week patch cycle. If you are not comfortable with birth control placed directly on the skin, and are concerned of the possibility of it falling off, I would recommend that you consider an alternative method of birth control such as NuvaRing (the vaginal ring) or Cyclessa (he Pill).

  尽管贴片脱落的几率很小,但也有脱落的可能性。如果发生脱落,应知道已经脱落多久,作出相应处理。

  如果脱落时间短于24小时,重新贴一片即可。如果贴片仍然干净完整,没有粘上其他物质,可继续使用这个贴片,且不会改变贴片的作用周期。

  如果脱落时间大于24小时,或不清楚脱落的时间,应更换新的贴片,开始新的避孕周期。

  如果使用贴片出现皮肤不适或担心它脱落,建议更换其他的避孕措施。

  

  What are the side effects of the patch?

  贴片有什么副作用?

  Because the contraceptive patch is a newer form of birth control, more long-term studies are needed to best document the side effects associated with this method. However, early evidence suggests that the side effects are very similar to those associated with other hormonal birth control methods. As your body adjusts to the hormonal changes, as with other hormonal birth control, you may experience a variety of side effects including, weight gain, irregular bleeding, trouble with contact lenses, fluid retention, nausea, headaches, breast tenderness, mood changes, menstrual cramps and abdominal pain. Skin irritation at the application site is a symptom that is specific to the patch.

  If any of these symptoms persist for prolonged periods of time, I recommend that you visit your healthcare provider.

  If you have concerns about the side effects described above, or the unknown long-term effects of the patch, I would recommend that you consider an alternative method of birth control such as NuvaRing.

  因为避孕贴片是一种新型的避孕措施,需要更长的时间来证明使用时的服副作用。然而早期的研究表明它的副作用与其他激素类避孕药的副作用非常相似。机体适应激素变化时,可能会出现多种副作用,包括体重增加,不规则出血,带隐形不适,液体储留,恶心,头疼,乳房触疼,情绪变化,痛经,腹痛。不同的是贴片与皮肤相接触的部位有刺激反映。

  如果副作用持续时间长,应咨询医生。如果担心出现上述副作用或不知道贴片的长效作用,建议更换其他的避孕措施,如Nuva环。

  (责任编辑:郑柏锋)


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